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What is Inclusion?
Inclusion is a learning approach in which all children, regardless of ability, learn together in the same school and classroom.
Dr. Michael Boyle describes the concept of inclusion with a metaphor from a Thanksgiving family meal table: “Our Catholic schools are tables. Some are invited to sit at the table and others are not. Sometimes, when those with disabilities are invited, they are only invited to the ‘kids’ table’, not in full participation at the ‘big table’. It is not enough just to be invited, as some small token. We must work to ensure that all have a place at the same table” (Ensuring a Place at the Table, NCEA, 2018).
Inclusion is an equitable and participatory learning experience:
The Importance of Inclusion
What is Inclusion?
Inclusion is about intentionally planning for the success of ALL students.
Inclusion is a learning approach in which all children, regardless of ability, learn together in the same school and classroom. Students have access to all learning opportunities and experiences and teachers are trained and supported to meet the needs of all learners.
An Agenda for Serving Students with Disabilities in Catholic Schools
Michael Boyle Ph. D. and Pamela R. Bernard Ed. D.
Who Benefits from Inclusion?
ALL students benefit from the resources available in an inclusive classroom.
Placing students with different needs in a general education classroom creates opportunities for typical students to serve others and to assume responsibilities previously not available. These students may experience considerable personal growth as a result.
A Longitudinal Study to Determine the Impact of Inclusion on Student Academic Outcomes
Sandi Cole, Ed.D., Hardy Murphy, Ph.D., Michael Frisby, Teresa Grossi, Ph.D., & Hannah Bolte
Catholic schools are called – through scripture, Church documents, and in Catholic Social Teaching – to serve ALL students.
All children are created in the image and likeness of God with unique characteristics and abilities. Pope Francis says, “A person with disabilities… needs to belong to a community. I pray that each person may feel the paternal gaze of God, who affirms their full dignity and the unconditional value of their life.”
Pastoral Statement of U.S. Catholic Bishops on Persons with Disabilities, 1978
- Exceptional Learners White Paper: One Spirit, One Body. Dr. Micheal Boyle, Andrew M. Greeley Center for Catholic Education, Loyola University Chicago School of Education.
- Ensuring a Place at the Table: Serving Students with Disabilities in Catholic Schools. Dr. Micheal Boyle (2018), National Catholic Educational Association.
- It’s time to end segregation of special education students, professors say ~ University of Kansas
- Building Inclusive Schools for Children of All Abilities, Nicole Eredics – June 12, 2015
- National Catholic Board on Full Inclusion
- More Catholic schools welcoming special needs students, Katie Scott, The Catholic Herald, January 28, 2016
- A Summary of the Evidence on Inclusive Education, Dr. Thomas Hehir, Silvana & Christopher Pasucci
- Andrew M. Greeley Center for Catholic Education, Loyola University Chicago School of Education.
- Notre Dame Program for Inclusive Education, University of Notre Dame.
- A Longitudinal Study to Determine the Impact of Inclusion on Student Academic Outcomes. Sandi Cole, Indiana University (2019). Brief summary: Students with disabilities perform better on tests when they spend more time in general education classrooms.
- The Dynamic Relationship Between Context, Curriculum, and Student Learning: A Case for Inclusive Education as a Research-based Practice. Lewis B. Jackson, University of Northern Colorado (2010). Brief Summary: This article used theory, historical records, and empirical research to make a case that inclusive education, in which students experience significant proportions of their day in the age-appropriate contexts and curriculum of general education, is a research-based practice with students who have extensive support needs.
- A Preliminary Investigation of IEP Quality and Content Associated With Placement in General Education Versus Special Education. Pam Hunt, (1992). Brief Summary: A significant increase was found in Individualized Education Plan (IEP) quality in measures of age appropriateness, functionality, and generalizations when students were moved from a self-contained classroom to a general education classroom. This was true even when the special educator stayed the same and moved with the child into the least restrictive environment. Experts interpret this to mean that there’s nothing going on within the four walls of a self-contained classroom that provides value and quality when stacked up against general education classroom settings.
- Inclusive Schooling Practices: Pedagogical and Research Foundations. A synthesis of the literature that informs best practices about inclusive schooling. G. McGregor, Allegheny University of the Health Sciences, (1998). Brief Summary: Many schools and parents make the argument that typical peers may be negatively impacted by the presence of students with disabilities. This study found that inclusion does NOT compromise a typical student’s academic or social outcome and in fact, typical students actually make more progress because of inclusionary practices.